Broker v. Lender: The Drive to Mini-Correspondent - Rational Response or Over-Reaction?
The question over Broker Compensation causing loans to be classified as HPML has caused some disruption in the business. It is at the heart of a movement driving current mortgage brokers to adopt the lender business model by becoming "mini-correspondents" to avoid adverse selection. The question posed: Is this a real cause or imagined? If it is real, is it worth the correspondent risk for brokers?
On the face of it, the conflux of two rules does appear to create a problem. The first rule - The Truth-in-Lending Higher Priced Mortgage Loan rule (HPML) - requires that loans exceeding a certain interest rate have a number of consumer protections. The interest rate trigger which drives this provision involves calculating the Annual Percentage Rate (APR) which takes into account upfront and monthly lender fees. This calculation is compared to the Average Prime Offered Rate (APOR) which is a WEEKLY index compiled by Freddie Mac in what's known as the Primary Mortgage Market Survey
. The rule considers any loan exceeding this calculation by 1.5% a Higher Priced Mortgage Loan requiring extra due diligence and disclosure. To this point all mortgage industry participants must play by the same rules. The conflict occurs when the Truth-in-Lending Originator Compensation Rule is considered.
The second rule creates the problem. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank) initiated reforms to the Truth-in-Lending Act, known as the Anti-Steering Rule (LO Comp). This rule constrained loan originator compensation to 3% of the loan amount, but also determined that lender paid compensation to originators had to be included in the APR computation. This doesn't get factored on a mortgage lender's APR computation, making the APR on brokered transaction with Lender Paid Compensation APPEAR to be higher than the equivalent transaction originated by a lender. (See NEW MORTGAGE RULES FORCE CONSUMERS TO CHOOSE HIGHER COST MORTGAGE OPTIONS
In reality, a very small sliver of loans could create a comparative disadvantage. To start with, only those in which the loan starts out as marginally HPML triggered could be an issue. This is the case when you have PMI, MIP or a lot of overlays. In these cases, lenders will run a nearly equal risk of triggering HPML requirements. Once you do have this higher APR present, then you must more carefully measure the transaction. Only then do you have to consider the magnitude of the broker's compensation and its effect on APR - the larger the broker's compensation, the more likely to trigger HPML relative to the same lender's transaction.
|In this case you can see how, with a higher APR to start with, the liklihood of triggering HPML requirements is exacerbated by the inclusion of the originator's compensation. This inclusion exaggerates the APR of the broker originated transaction, which could limit borrower choices in seeking home financing, ultimately costing consumers more.
Consequences - Limited Choices for Consumers = Higher Costs
For consumers, the compliance risk associated with HPML means fewer lenders willingly offer these loans. Brokers, who can provide alternatives and drive down costs, may be selected out of comparison if the transaction falls into the narrow range of transactions that would be considered HPML if originated by a broker but not by a lender.
But how much of an injury is this?
Take a rational view of the HPML requirements and you realize these already exist in the non-HPML world. Most lenders require escrows, particularly on loans with MIP or PMI, which are the loans most likely to be HPML. We always have to give borrowers copies of appraisals. We already consider ability to repay on all transactions. The limitations on loan types - no prepayment penalties, negative amortization or balloons, are already considered for most of the industry's loans. How is a broker limited if a loan should be categorized as HPML? The truth: the broker doesn't experience a negative impact.
The Rush to Correspondent
As a mortgage service provider, there are legitimate reasons to elevate your business to correspondent:
- An investor offering a specialty product ONLY through correspondent channel
- The ability to control generating closing documents locally and improve service delivery
But when measured against the substantial risks correspondents take, is it really worth it simply to avoid this one small regulatory wrinkle? The NAMB has provided a great TWO PAGE overview of the risks associated with small firms taking on correspondent responsibilities
- Repurchase risk
- Audit risk
- Compliance risk
- Liquidity risk
Slow Down There Big Fella!
For brokers the APOR/APR issue seems to be problematic, but the broker starts at a lower APR then adds fees. How likely are you to trigger HPML on most transactions that you wouldn't trigger if you were a lender? Small chance - you have same overlays/MI, etc. It is not worth taking on correspondent risk to avoid the relatively rare occasion when a broker transaction would carry an APR so much higher than a lender transaction to trigger HPML. Plus, borrower paid transactions are excluded from this entire debate. Plus, what really happens when a loan becomes HPML? You can't have prepays balloons or negam, you have to qualify, and you have to give the borrower a copy of the appraisal, right? WE DO THAT ANYWAY!
Tell me if I'm wrong. The furor is causing a lot of disruption among small brokers. Much of this concern has been caused by wholesalers who want to differentiate their service offering, so have stirred the pot over this debate.
Holy Secondary Conflict, Batman!
There are bigger problems with the HPML rule. APOR is set once a week. We have seen major fluctuations in pricing to the upside, and when this happens simple market movement can cause EVERY LOAN IN YOUR PIPELINE to be HPML. Maybe the day is here where we simply assume each loan will be HPML, and move forward from there. We are doing it anyway.
Bankers Online HPML Checklist
- You can document that you determined whether a loan was HPML or not, and then what you did to comply.